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The 1,000-Yard Stare and the Surveillance State

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Subway Driver in PragueAfter reading this week’s blogs I found that most of the class is on the fence between happy that something is being done to help secure their safety, but unsure whether the privacy intrusion is worth it.

Remel in his blog talks about the experience that the Europeans had especially after World War II with intrusive government police looking over their shoulders and coercing people into invading each other’s privacy under the guise of “security.”

Because of their experience, Europeans are almost universally against this kind intrusion to the point where personal privacy in all its forms (including electronic) was written into the European Union’s constitution.

Deepest Escalator to Metro Station in Europe: Prague

Deepest Escalator to Metro Station in Europe: Prague

If you wonder what the social ramifications of living in a surveillance state are – as we are currently finding out – I have actually experienced the fallout from that when my wife and I were in Prague in the fall of 2001.

After World War II the Czech Republic (as part of Czechoslovakia) fell under the Soviet sphere and remained under the Soviet sphere as an occupied country until 1989 when the Soviet Union collapsed and the Czech Republic gained its independence.

If you want to see the social and personal ramifications of what living in a police state all your life can do to an individual, all you need to do is ride the Prague Metro. The Prague Metro is a subway system much like other subway systems in Paris, London, New York City, and Boston.

You ride some of the longest escalators in Europe deep into the bedrock to the sunken but surprisingly comfortable metro stations deep under the city.

Shortly thereafter, you board a sturdy, spacious subway train.

Like many subways, the trains are designed with seats that face one another with large open spaces for standing. When you’re sitting in the seats you can’t help but looking at the people sitting directly across from you. That’s where you notice the difference.

The younger people – the twentysomethings, the teenagers and the children are all generally laughing, joking, talking and having a really good time.

Prague Metro Car

Prague Metro Car

For older people, on the other hand, it’s a completely different story. All the older people, folks who came of age and lived during Soviet occupation all act completely differently. And, they all act the same way when they’re riding any public transportation.

They sit with her hands folded in their lap staring straight ahead — staring straight into your pupils – emotionless; expressionless; saying nothing to anyone around them. They just stare straight into your face with neither smiles nor frowns. It’s called the thousand-yard stare and they’re looking right through you as if you were invisible.

I mentioned to my friends that I worked with how unsettling I found this to be and they explained it this way during the Soviet times the Czech Republic had its own secret police (StB) much like the Stasi in East Germany. The secret police’s job was to spy on and report on possible “troublemakers.”

It was a well-known open secret that the secret police often encouraged you to inform on your friends; your coworkers and your families. In order to fly under the radar of the secret police, people became informants and did so, often making things up.

Metro Open Door

Metro Open Door

The secret police operated in public and since they were secret, they didn’t wear uniforms. You never knew who was a secret police agent. You never knew who the confidential informants were, so to mitigate that, people adopted this public face when they were out of their houses. They did not smile; they didn’t laugh; they didn’t show that they were having any sort of a good time because in the Soviet sphere, people who were carefree and laughing were obviously “up to something.”

So to mitigate that as much as possible, people adopted a public face of expressionlessness to try to remain as invisible as possible so as not raise the attention of anybody who might be the secret police or their informers.

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Written by digitalanalogues

July 5, 2014 at 12:42 PM

Y2K, Strategic Bombing and Stuxnet

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If the revelation that one government agency is wholesale spying on everyone while another is promulgating computer viruses that that perform sophisticated, real-world sabotage doesn’t freak you out – even just a little bit – then you are just not paying attention to how much of our daily lives is run by automation and computers.

Weekly World News Y2K Hysteria

Weekly World News Y2K Hysteria

But the idea that real world damage could be done with a few lines of computer code isn’t a new one.

As the last years of the 1990s were coming to a close, computer professionals, programmers and technologists slowly came to a realization. It was that all of the computer controlled, embedded microprocessors that ran much of the infrastructure that we all rely on contained a significant flaw.

Almost all computers and computer-controlled equipment worldwide used internal time clocks that only counted the years with two digits. July 4, 1999 to a computer was 070499. January 2, 2000 would be 010200 — almost 100 years earlier.

That seems like a quaint error, until you realize that computers rely heavily on its internal timekeeping to do everything. Unix computers keep track of, and log, everything a program does by making note of when everything happens; when it is supposed to happen; and what date and processor clock cycle it is and is supposed to be. And it can only count forward.

A computer cannot independently determine that 00 comes after 99. Any computer would look at that possibility at best as a logic problem and malfunction. At worst, it would rank as a “divide by zero” error and crash. Either the program would crash or the whole computer system would crash. Either way, it would be a bad day in tech town.

So, suddenly the whole world that had computerized and automated practically everything: air traffic control; train schedules; water treatment plants; hospital systems; desktop computer BIOS; elevators; telephone switches; coal mines; the International Space Station; the Space Shuttle; nuclear power plants; utility distribution; etc. etc. etc. — realized that everything could just crash and stop working on Jan. 1, 2000.

Why?

There were many reasons, but it boiled down to two main ones:

  1. When these computer systems were designed, computer memory, RAM or ROM was limited and expensive. So engineers designed computer systems to only require two digits to account for the date to save money, memory space and resources. It didn’t matter at the time because …
  2. No one ever expected these computer systems to last 10, 15, 20 or even 30 years. Surely they would be replaced by something else before the date issue became a problem.

But when it comes to technology, governments and corporations are notoriously frugal. If it works, why change it? Even computer manufacturers who were making PCs in the late 1990s included firmware BIOSes that had what became known as the Y2K bug.

BIOS 8086

PC BIOS Fixed In Emulation

Once it became widely known that this was a (significant) problem – and Congress held hearings to harrumph about it – the tech world quietly set about fixing the problem. It was a herculean effort – largely unsung – that involved short time spans – 12 to 18 months – and drawing people back out of retirement.

Many of these systems were running programs written in computer languages that no one had used in 20 years: COBOL, Fortran; Assembly; and LISP. People who knew them were hard to find and young programmers had to learn these notoriously difficult languages just to try to reverse-engineer what they were looking at.

June 24th, 2012 _Coded into Stuxnet - The Date Stuxnet Was To Deactivate Itself

June 24th, 2012 _Coded into Stuxnet – The Date Stuxnet Was To Deactivate Itself

Of course, like any challenge to humanity, most greeted it with curiosity. Companies marketed Y2K swag. (My favorite being Y2Kandy – SweetTart-like candies shaped like integrated circuit chips. I still have a bag somewhere.) Others responded with requisite hysteria: “What’s Gonna Happen?!!” And a select few held up in compounds out west and committed mass suicide because, you know, end of the world and all that.

Because of the tremendous efforts of programmers, IT people and computer hackers, nothing other than some amusing glitches occurred as a result of the Y2K “Millennium Bug.” The public decided it was a hoax when nothing happened (airplanes didn’t fall out of the sky) but people who were in charge of fixing it knew what kind of serious bullet had just been dodged.

That’s what malware like Stuxnet and FLAME represent: a Y2K event made to order. Using the technology made to run critical infrastructure to malfunction and cause physical damage in the real – not virtual world. Unlike Y2K, the effects would not be random, but certain and targeted.

B-24_Saturation_Bombing_Neuburg_Austria_March_1945

B-24 Saturation Bombing Austria March 1945

In World War II, the allies and axis powers used different bombing strategies to prosecute the air war over Europe. After the Battle of Britain was won by the RAF, Germany took to bombing cities at night. Unable to target with any precision, the idea was just to level the cities and terrify the public. V1 Buzz bomb and V2 rocket bombs were launched over the channel with the idea that they’d just crash down and explode when they ran out of fuel. If they hit something of value, well, then great.

The allies did their fair share of indiscriminate bombing, but after the allies gained control of the skies over Germany, they bombed during the day, targeting things of military value: factories, highways, bridges, air fields or anything that would help the German war effort. Of course the accuracy of high-altitude bombing was not “surgical” by any means, at least the effort wasn’t overtly to terrorize the population.

That is why there was an outcry over the bombing of Dresden – a city of museums that had no major military assets. After Dresden, the allies tried to control the targeting of bombing runs as best as possible, at least until Japan’s Hiroshima and Nagasaki were bombed with a new weapon to show a reluctant Japan what might befall it if it did not bow out of the war.

When General Hayden says that Stuxnet was a “good idea” but also “a big idea,” the worry is that, by showing what these kind of software assets can do, it shows what is called “proof of concept.” That cyber warfare could work and that it can cause real damage in the physical world.

It could be a made-to-order Y2K that didn’t happen then but may in the future.

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June 25, 2014 at 5:37 PM

Rolling NSA / CIA – Style For Week 4!

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Crypto-Kids

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June 20, 2014 at 7:21 PM

The Six Degrees Of Kevin Bacon & Networking

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Social Networking

Small Network

In the chapter “Sharing Anchors Community,” Clay Shirky tells how the birthday paradox shows that the more connections you have in a network, the more complex it becomes. A small network of friends, as shown at right, has a complicated set of interactions. There are any number of routes to take through that group.

This concept is key to showing how information travels through the Internet. The Internet was designed that traffic can take the shortest, least congested route through the group. That concept becomes even more important when you exponentially increase the size of the group.

Large Network

Large Network

But to travel across the network , data does not need to travel to each point on the network. It only needs to take the shortest path.

Consider the larger network at the left. Since we are connected to the billions of people on the Internet with our computers, phones and tablets it’s tempting to think of our connections to each other to  on to look like a vast version of the large network pictured here.

However, our connections to each other resemble most the connections we see when we look at our groups of Facebook “friends.” Some are actual friends; some are family; some are acquaintances; and some are colleagues. When we look at how we are organized (especially on the Internet) we are all not grouped together in the same fashion.

Network Clusters

Network Clusters

Some of your friends limit their network reach to your tight-knit group of friends but some are more gregarious and worldly. They don’t just travel in one group of friends, but several group. Some of these people with have dozens of connections in their networks, but some with have hundreds or thousands.

That dynamic changes how we connect to one another and it is a key aspect of the “six degrees of separation” concept. That’s the concept that states that any two people on Earth can be connected through six acquaintances. It’s also called the “small world theory.”

The way that is possible is illustrated by the graphic at the right.

Everyone you know is not connected to everyone in another group, but at least one or two people you know are connected by friendship or kinship to at least two or three other groups.

Those other groups can be small or they could be quite large.

And that grouping mimics the Internet, as well. your computers and mobile devices are not connected to every other device directly, but through networks. Your Internet service provider is its own network. If you have Verizon, Comcast or some other network, you are part of that web. If you are on campus, you are connected as part of the UIS.EDU network.

All of these networks are stitched loosely together into the Internet. The name stands for Interconnected Network of Networks.

Kevin Bacon

Kevin Bacon

Your friend group is your network. So, you might then ask yourself, what does this have to do with Kevin Bacon.

Simple. In 1994 magazine interview, Kevin Bacon mused that he had either worked with everyone in Hollywood or worked with someone who had. This was about the time that the “six degrees” hypothesis was gaining popularity.

Since Bacon is a prolific actor, his musings seemed plausible and people put it to the test. A fun parlor game sprung up riffing on the six degrees paradigm, called The Six Degrees Of Kevin Bacon.

The game was created in early 1994 by three Albright College students, Craig Fass, Brian Turtle, and Mike Ginelli. According to The Albright Reporter, they were watching Footloose during a  snowstorm and when the film was followed by The Air Up There, they began to speculate on how many movies Bacon had been in and the number of people he had worked with.

They invented the game by connecting actors to each other based on the actors they had worked with in other movies with the ultimate goal of finding an actor who had worked with Kevin Bacon in a movie.

In the early days of the Internet – before Google and other search engines – the game took off in starting on a Web page and following links until you landed on a page that mentioned Kevin Bacon. You didn’t have to go far.

The concept has extended to include what is called a “Bacon Number.” That is how many actors, or degrees, away from Kevin Bacon another actor is. Wikipedia explains this concept:

The Bacon number of an actor or actress is the number of degrees of separation he or she has from Bacon, as defined by the game. This is an application of the Erdős number concept to the Hollywood movie industry. The higher the Bacon number, the farther away from Kevin Bacon the actor is.

The computation of a Bacon number for actor X is a “shortest path” algorithm, applied to the co-stardom network:

  • Kevin Bacon has a Bacon number of 0.
  • Those actors who have worked directly with Kevin Bacon have a Bacon number of 1.
  • If the lowest Bacon number of any actor with whom X has appeared in any movie is N, X’s Bacon number is N+1.

Here is an example, using Elvis Presley:

Therefore, Asner has a Bacon number of 1, and Presley (who never appeared in a film with Bacon) has a Bacon number of 2.

So what about me; what’s my Bacon Number? Well, I’m not an actor, but I have a Bacon Number of 4.

See, my friend, Ken Seeber was an extra in the movie “Poor White Trash” with Sean Young (he shoots her a dirty look on the street!) Young was in the movie “Fire Birds” with Tommy Lee Jones. Tommy Lee Jones was in “JFK” with Kevin Bacon.

Written by digitalanalogues

June 12, 2014 at 4:06 PM

‘Blog Post Layout and Illustration Tips

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The Big Block

If you have been looking at ‘Blogs and their posts, you may notice that some are more readable than others. Why is that?

Well, then answer may be what your eye is seeing moreso than the content of the post. This ‘Blog post contains examples of how lots of people do it and how others do it better. Below this paragraph is a big block ‘o’ text. (It’s a greeking block, so it is gibberish.) See how it looks on the screen.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur sit amet faucibus massa. Mauris facilisis eros volutpat lorem cursus vulputate. Cras commodo tellus vitae eros venenatis eu consectetur felis tincidunt. Curabitur non enim et nisl blandit feugiat non eget tortor. Nunc pharetra semper nisl quis porttitor. Ut pretium pellentesque dignissim. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Mauris ligula tellus, congue accumsan malesuada ut, venenatis et justo. Suspendisse tristique vulputate augue, vel ullamcorper justo pretium eget. Nulla imperdiet est sed dui aliquet vitae ullamcorper velit euismod. Nunc sed nibh arcu. Nam ultrices aliquet convallis. Morbi aliquam tristique gravida. Curabitur ullamcorper tellus sit amet sapien ultricies eu placerat lacus suscipit. Suspendisse elementum eros vel sem luctus eu fringilla nisi consectetur. Duis laoreet eleifend pellentesque. Etiam ac sapien nisi, quis dapibus tellus. Donec porttitor, metus vitae tempus convallis, dui orci suscipit turpis, vel facilisis nunc lacus nec nisl. Nunc metus nibh, dapibus lobortis consectetur vel, imperdiet eu quam. Aenean eu rutrum magna. Ut ac nunc nec arcu condimentum ullamcorper. Phasellus ut dui vitae eros bibendum pretium eu at purus. Sed commodo arcu vitae elit fringilla sed sagittis ipsum auctor. Mauris turpis metus, tincidunt in consectetur sed, viverra a urna. Vestibulum commodo mauris vitae augue egestas iaculis. Vivamus in nisi purus. Mauris non velit orci. Quisque metus augue, blandit sit amet pharetra et, commodo in libero. 

Avoiding ‘The Big Block’

A long time ago, newspaper and magazine publishers realized that large blocks of text turned readers off. Contrary to what you learned in high school composition, (That paragraphs had to contain all the sentences that made up that complete thought – no matter how large the paragraphs got. Walt Whitman, anyone?) that paragraphs in periodicals worked best when they were comprised of only one or two short sentences.

Look at a newspaper or magazine and you will see all their stories are laid out with one or two sentence paragraphs. Readership studies proved that, when confronted with a long story built with lengthy, complex paragraphs, readers skipped right over them. But even longish stories with short, snappy paragraphs got read.

Why?

Because it was found that readers perceived large blocks of text as impenetrable and short paragraphs as readable. So the journalistic convention was born that small ‘graphs are better than large ‘graphs. Look at the difference of the same text block from above recast below:

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur sit amet faucibus massa. Mauris facilisis eros volutpat lorem cursus vulputate. Cras commodo tellus vitae eros venenatis eu consectetur felis tincidunt. Curabitur non enim et nisl blandit feugiat non eget tortor. Nunc pharetra semper nisl quis porttitor. Ut pretium pellentesque dignissim.

In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Mauris ligula tellus, congue accumsan malesuada ut, venenatis et justo. Suspendisse tristique vulputate augue, vel ullamcorper justo pretium eget. Nulla imperdiet est sed dui aliquet vitae ullamcorper velit euismod. Nunc sed nibh arcu.

Nam ultrices aliquet convallis. Morbi aliquam tristique gravida. Curabitur ullamcorper tellus sit amet sapien ultricies eu placerat lacus suscipit. Suspendisse elementum eros vel sem luctus eu fringilla nisi consectetur. Duis laoreet eleifend pellentesque. Etiam ac sapien nisi, quis dapibus tellus. Donec porttitor, metus vitae tempus convallis, dui orci suscipit turpis, vel facilisis nunc lacus nec nisl.

Nunc metus nibh, dapibus lobortis consectetur vel, imperdiet eu quam. Aenean eu rutrum magna. Ut ac nunc nec arcu condimentum ullamcorper. Phasellus ut dui vitae eros bibendum pretium eu at purus. Sed commodo arcu vitae elit fringilla sed sagittis ipsum auctor. Mauris turpis metus, tincidunt in consectetur sed, viverra a urna. Vestibulum commodo mauris vitae augue egestas iaculis.

Vivamus in nisi purus. Mauris non velit orci. Quisque metus augue, blandit sit amet pharetra et, commodo in libero. 

TextBlocksThe paragraphs above “look” very readable.

Now look at the picture on the left. Those  leftmost legs of text are exactly the same as the ones on the right. That is the optical illusion of the text block.

Small paragraphs look readable. Larger ones look “too long.” In the 1970s and 1980s, legs of type were starting to be appreciated for their graphic appeal. The shape and placement of text blocks were looked at with the same importance as pictures and graphics as well as the “white space” between everything on the page.

Even though we are writing online, the print journalism lessons ring just as true on  screen as in print.

Perhaps, maybe even more so.

If you are viewing this with a computer it will look the way I intended it to look. If you are looking at it on a tablet or smart phone, the screen will be redrawn even smaller. NOT having large text blocks will be an advantage.

Pictures! We Got Pictures!

Now look at the text below. The addition of photos – graphics – into the post makes it ‘look’ better still. If you have ever wondered why newspapers and magazines (with the obvious exception of the Chicago Sun-Times) go to a lot of trouble to get great photographs to go along with their stories, it is because readership studies show that we are far more likely to read a story illustrated with photos or graphics than one that is not.

Editors bemoaned the ‘grey page’ and, if they saw one, would demand a feature – stand-alone – photo be laid out on the page to go along with the stories because it made the page ‘look readable.’

You probably wouldn’t read a story about my trading one car for another, but if I include pictures of a couple of supercars, you might give it a go.

Trading In My Hooptie

My Hooptie

My Former Car

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Curabitur sit amet faucibus massa. Mauris facilisis eros volutpat lorem cursus vulputate. Cras commodo tellus vitae eros venenatis eu consectetur felis tincidunt. Curabitur non enim et nisl blandit feugiat non eget tortor. Nunc pharetra semper nisl quis porttitor. Ut pretium pellentesque dignissim.

In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Mauris ligula tellus, congue accumsan malesuada ut, venenatis et justo. Suspendisse tristique vulputate augue, vel ullamcorper justo pretium eget. Nulla imperdiet est sed dui aliquet vitae ullamcorper velit euismod. Nunc sed nibh arcu.

Nam ultrices aliquet convallis. Morbi aliquam tristique gravida. Curabitur ullamcorper tellus sit amet sapien ultricies eu placerat lacus suscipit. Suspendisse elementum eros vel sem luctus eu fringilla nisi consectetur. Duis laoreet eleifend pellentesque. Etiam ac sapien nisi, quis dapibus tellus. Donec porttitor, metus vitae tempus convallis, dui orci suscipit turpis, vel facilisis nunc lacus nec nisl.

Dude. Where's My Car?

My New Bad Ride

Nunc metus nibh, dapibus lobortis consectetur vel, imperdiet eu quam. Aenean eu rutrum magna. Ut ac nunc nec arcu condimentum ullamcorper. Phasellus ut dui vitae eros bibendum pretium eu at purus. Sed commodo arcu vitae elit fringilla sed sagittis ipsum auctor. Mauris turpis metus, tincidunt in consectetur sed, viverra a urna. Vestibulum commodo mauris vitae augue egestas iaculis.

Vivamus in nisi purus. Mauris non velit orci. Quisque metus augue, blandit sit amet pharetra et, commodo in libero. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Integer orci ligula, venenatis vitae sagittis ac, aliquet ac augue. Suspendisse ipsum lectus, aliquam sit amet sodales auctor, consequat in orci.

Proin imperdiet, mi sed volutpat euismod, ipsum ante fermentum diam, eget auctor lorem dui id ligula. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas.

Enhancing Your ‘Blog Posts

Next time,  I’ll talk about adding hyperlinks to your posts in order to enhance then and to impart more detail and understanding to your readers.

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June 6, 2014 at 4:35 PM

COM 341 Revised Kickstart

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For the next 8 weeks, we will be exploring the changing landscape of Communication Technologies. Please take the time now to carefully read through the syllabus (and this memo) completely before you begin.

wordpress_logo1This addendum will explain the steps you must take early this week to successfully kick-start the class. In addition to Blackboard and your UIS email, there are two things you must do right away to get up and running.

  • You must create a unique Weblog (‘Blog) to use in the class. Go to https://en.wordpress.com/signup/ and sign up for the FREE blog service. You need to choose an address for your ‘Blog (what your ‘Blog will be called) and a user name (the name you will use to log into your blog’s control panel.) Signup is quick and easy and only requires an email address. It will ask you if you want paid upgrade service. That is not necessary. The free service is far more than you will need for this class. Take the time to explore the control panel with the new user tour. Make sure you allow comments to your postings and that you allow those comments to be posted automatically (without your prior approval.)
  • TwitterYou must also sign up for a free Twitter account at http://twitter.com/ One need only supply a user name (your Twitter handle), email and password. If you already have a Twitter account that you use for your close friends and family, please consider opening a separate account for this class. That way your tweets for class will be more professional and on-point and your personal tweets can be more freewheeling.

Take a moment to think about your ‘Blog address and Twitter names. I want you to have fun and be creative and personal with them, just make sure they are “safe for work.” Past students have continued their ‘Blogs and Twitter accounts in their professional lives. (Several work as social media directors for a organizations in and around Springfield.

After you have created both your ‘Blog and Twitter accounts, you must email me (at mcava2@uis.edu) and tell me both the exact URL (Web address) of your WordPress ‘Blog (e.g. Mine is: https://digitalanalogues.wordpress.com/) and Twitter account name (e.g. Mine is: Prof_Cavanagh). This is key. Please do both before the end of the day Tuesday and let me know where and how to find your accounts.

Also, you must subscribe to my ‘Blog and follow me on my  @Prof_Cavanagh Twitter account. I will follow you back.

TEC_JennyOnce I have your Twitter user names and ‘Blog URLs, I will email all of you with the list so you can each subscribe to everyone else’s in the class. This is extremely important and key to successfully completing the class. If you have questions about how to do that, please contact me. I can talk you through the process over the phone. (Much more efficient than email.) Subscribing to each other’s ‘Blogs and following each other’s Twitter accounts facilitates more class interaction and camaraderie than the solo experience.

Each week, there will be readings, video links and podcasts uploaded to the Course Materials area of Blackboard. Week One materials will be posted by the end of Monday, and then later in the week materials for the following week will be posted for those who like to get a jump on the following week.

  • You are to read all the class materials, view the videos (most are 45 – 90 minutes in length) and listen to the podcasts. I will have posted a question or theme for you to consider based on that weeks material.
  • You are to synthesize the material and then write and post a ‘Blog posting (by Thursday) that either answers the question I pose or distills the theme that ties all the weeks material together. Since this is an online class, the responses must be substantial – 650 – 800 words or more. If you write in Microsoft Word first before you post your response, that is an easy way to measure the word count. I encourage you to be creative and find and link to information that supports and enhances your argument.
  • Don’t forget to check my ‘Blog, too. I will be posting throughout the week as well!
  • Each week, your ‘Blog postings must be uploaded by Thursday. You will then have until the following Tuesday to read each other’s ‘Blog posts. Start a conversation with your fellow students in the class about your responses by commenting on each other’s posts. Comments are due to be posted on each other’s blogs from the previous Thursday by the following Tuesday of each week. Communication technologies are constantly in the news nowadays and the landscape is constantly shifting. You should comment on at least 5 other classmates’ posts each week. Don’t forget to comment on mine! The comments should be longer than one sentence or phrase. Make the comment long enough to challenge assumptions and back up what you say.
  • In between times, we will use our Twitter accounts for occasional “Tweetups” regarding class materials, videos or breaking news events related to the class material. I will provide guidance for Tweetups.

That is enough from me for now. Read the syllabus; establish your WordPress ‘Blogs and Twitter accounts; and get a jump on the reading. I’ll be in touch again to see how you are doing. Don’t forget to call me if you have questions.

Written by digitalanalogues

June 5, 2014 at 6:27 PM

Summer 2014 COM 341

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Twitter_bird_logo_2012.svgGood luck, everyone, getting your ‘blog set up and your Twitter accounts as well. As we get up to speed with the short semester, I posted the first podcast and reading material to Blackboard. Please download it and listen to it however you most prefer.

Remember to write a response to this week’s reading material to your ‘blog and then Tweet your response’s existence. If you have subscribed to everyone else’s ‘blogs they will be informed when you post a reply to their posts.

Written by digitalanalogues

June 2, 2014 at 9:09 PM